The following nations are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Alliance.

Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States. (28)

Countries underlined are also members of the European Union.

In 1993, NATO was reorganised from three into two major Commands with a further reorganisation of these two commands in 2003. The first is ACT (Allied Command Transformation) with headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia (USA) and the second is ACO (Allied Command Operations), with its headquarters at Mons in Belgium.

The current Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) is Admiral Stavridis. SACEUR, (a US officer) is responsible for the overall command of NATO military operations and conducts the necessary military operational planning, including the identification of forces required for the mission and requesting these forces from NATO countries, as authorised by the North Atlantic Council and as directed by NATO's Military Committee. Admiral Stavridis was appointed in June 2009.


In the future, Allied Command Transformation, with its headquarters in Norfolk, US, will oversee the transformation of NATO's military capabilities. In doing so, it will enhance training, improve capabilities, test and develop doctrines and conduct experiments to assess new concepts. It will also facilitate the dissemination and introduction of new concepts and promote interoperability. There will be an ACT Staff Element in Belgium primarily for resource and defence planning issues.

ACT commands the Joint Warfare Centre in Norway, a Joint Force Training Centre in Poland and the Joint Analysis and Lessons Learned Centre in Portugal. ACT Headquarters also supervises the Undersea Research Centre in La Spezia, Italy and the NATO School at Oberammergau in Germany. There are direct linkages between ACT, Alliance schools and NATO agencies, as well as the US Joint Forces Command. In addition, a number of nationally or multinationally-sponsored Centres of Excellence are focused on transformation in specific military fields who support ACT.


Allied Command Operations, with its headquarters, SHAPE, near Mons, Belgium, is responsible for all NATO operations. The levels beneath SHAPE have been significantly streamlined, with a reduction in the number of headquarters.

The operational level consists of two standing Joint Force Commands (JFCs) one in Brunssum, the Netherlands, and one in Naples, Italy - which can conduct operations from their static locations or provide a land-based Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) headquarters, and a robust but more limited standing Joint Headquarters (JHQ), in Lisbon, Portugal, from which a deployable sea-based CJTF HQ capability can be drawn. The current organisation of Allied Command Operations is as follows:


The component or tactical level consists of six Joint Force Component Commands (JFCCs), which provide service-specific land, maritime, or air expertise to the operational level.
Although these component commands will be available for use in any operation, they will be subordinated to one of the Joint Force Commanders.

Joint Forces Command - Brunssum

Joint Forces Command - Naples


In addition to the above component commands there will be four static Combined Air Operations Centres with two more deployable as follows:

As the deployable CAOCs will need to exercise their capability to mobilise and deploy, the current facilities at Torrejon Air Base in Spain will probably be the primary site for training and exercising in that region. A small NATO air facility support staff would be stationed at Torrejon to support this capability.

Deployable Immediate Reaction Forces (IRF) available:

Immediate Reaction Forces (Maritime) - There are four Maritime Immediate Reaction Forces that provide NATO with a continuous naval presence and can be deployed NATO-wide, when required.

ACE (Allied Command Europe) Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC) - The ARRC is prepared for deployment throughout Allied Command Europe in order to augment or reinforce local forces whenever necessary. The Headquarters of the ARRC is located at Innsworth (near Gloucester) in the UK.

Eurocorps HQ Based around Strasbourg in France

Reaction Forces (Air) Staff With headquarters at Kalkar in Germany.

ACE Mobile Force (AMF) With headquarters at Heidelberg in Germany.

Deployable National Corps These deployable corps are available with headquarters provided by Italy, Turkey, Germany/Netherlands, Spain and Greece.

NATO Airborne Early Warning Force (NAEWF) - The NATO Airborne Early Warning Force provides air surveillance and command and control for all NATO commands. It is based in Geilenkirchen, Germany, and Waddington, United Kingdom.

NATO Programming Centre (NPC) - The NATO Programming Centre maintains NATO Air Command and Control Software and provides system expertise to nations and NATO agencies and headquarters. It is located in Glons, Belgium.