Kub mobile surface-to-air missile
(SAM) system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system
designed to protect ground forces from air attack. "2К12" is the GRAU
designation of the system. Its NATO reporting name is SA-6 Gainful.
Each battery consists of a number of similar tracked vehicles, one of
which carries the 1S91 (NATO designation Straight Flush) 25 kW G\H
band radar (range 75 km\47 miles) equipped with a continuous wave
illuminator, in addition to an optical sight.
The battery usually also
includes four triple-missile transporter erector launchers (TELs) and
trucks each carrying three spare missiles and a crane.
The SA-6 system shares a lot of components with the SA-4 system. In
many ways they are designed to complement each other; SA-4 is
effective at long ranges and high altitudes, SA-6 at medium ranges and
intermediate altitudes. The SA-7 and SA-8 systems complete this
picture with the low-altitude and short range capabilities.
The system is able to acquire and begin tracking targets using the
1S91 "Straight Flush" radar at 75 km (47 miles) and begin illumination
and guidance at 28 km (17 miles). IFF is also performed using this
radar. It can only guide between one and two missiles to a single
target at any time. The missile is initially command guided with
terminal semi active radar homing (SARH), with target illumination
provided by the "Straight Flush" radar. Detonation is via either the
impact or proximity fuse. On the latest models, this vehicle is also
fitted with an optical tracking system which allows engagement without
the use of the radar (for active RF emissions stealth reasons, or due
to heavy ECM jamming) in which case the effective altitude is limited
to 14 km\46000 ft. The optical tracking method also allows engagements
to altitudes below that where the radar is able to track targets.
Maximum target speed is around Mach 2 for head-on engagements and Mach
1 for tail-chase engagements. Top speed of the missile is
approximately Mach 2.8.
In contrast to the elaborate Patriot missile or even the simpler Hawk
system fielded by US forces, most of the system rides on two tracked
self-propelled vehicles, rather than towed or mounted on trucks, and
either the launcher or control vehicle can be set to launch in only 15
minutes after changing location.
59 kg blast fragmentation with proximity and contact fuses
Speed Mach 3, range 3